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Puppets in Prison

Proposal to the Department of National Health
for the funding of research and production of a four-year programme
of educational workshops and live performances
on HIV / AIDS and related topics
in South African prisons

Executive summary

'Puppets in Prison' aims to effectively reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually
transmitted diseases, while at the same time training and rehabilitating selected
prisoners in prisons throughout South Africa.

It is envisaged that between 1996 and the year 2000, the programme will train ten
peer-group educational teams, one in each of South Africa's nine provinces, with two in
Gauteng - in total 150 to 200 skilled trainers of performer-educators.

This core-group of prisoners, through the education and training programme, will train
approximately one thousand prisoners as performer-educators during the four year period
to reach the 500 000 prisoners who pass through the South African prisons each year.

The Department of Correctional Services will be encouraged to employ released prisoners,
who have undergone and graduated in the training programme. This will enable them to
re-enter the prison system as trained performer-educators, employed by Correctional
Services to continue the facilitation of ongoing prison education in South Africa.

Gary Friedman Productions is ideally suited to design and coordinate the training
programme, as it is unlikely that the state sector would be effective in the short-medium
term to initiate and sustain an effective HIV/AIDS peer-training programme of this kind.

Gary Friedman Productions has already had ten years experience in formulating and
conducting this type of 'puppetry-in-HIV/AIDS-education programmes' internationally.

A pilot programme in prison was conducted between February and April 1996 in Diepkloof
Prison, Johannesburg. Twelve juvenile prisoners were trained as performer-educators and
they have since continued their educational peer-programme at Diepkloof Prison over the
past eight months.

Proposal to Department of National Health  page 2 ...

The pilot programme has undergone an independent evaluation, which included the
monitoring of test performances, both the audiences and the performer group. The
programme in its current design, has substantial support from local prison authorities,
provincial and national Correctional Services, members of the Parliamentary Portfolio
Committees on Health and Correctional Services, the United Nations AIDS Programme,  the
Department of National Health, the AIDS and Information Centre, the prisoners and prison
staff alike.

We believe that the Department of National Health support to this programme can assist in
substantially impacting on the reduction of HIV/AIDS and STDs both within the prison
communities and for society at large!

There is a current estimate of about 30% HIV infection rate in South African prisons.
*"On average, it is estimated that the prevalence of HIV amongst prisoners is more than
ten times higher than in the general community."

(* Discussion paper on HIV/AIDS in prisons by Ralf JURGENS, 1996 - Canadian HIV/AIDS
Legal Network)

THE Background

Prison Statistics
Between 450 000 - 500 000 prisoners pass through South African prisons each year.
Although accommodation only exists for 95 000 prisoners in South African jails, there are
currently 120 000 prisoners occupying this space.

Infection Rate
The Department of Correctional Services reported the existence of only 722 HIV/AIDS cases
on 30 June 1996, out of a total prison population of 118 597. These figures were given,
despite the fact that compulsory HIV testing was stopped in 1994 and it is therefore
impossible to determine how many prisoners are now carrying the virus. Although there are
no accurate statistics of HIV infection in South African prisons, current infection rate
estimates range between 15% to 30%.

HIV Policy in Prison
After much lobbying by the Correctional Services Portfolio Committee in Parliament, on 17
May 1996, the Minister of Correctional Services finally announced a change in policy on
the issue of condoms in prison and the isolation of HIV positive prisoners. A declaration
of intent was made that condoms were now to be freely issued in South African prisons and
prisoners infected with HIV were no longer to be isolated from the general prison

According to Carl NIEHAUS, Chairperson of the Correctional Services Portfolio Committee,
there are plans to introduce 'comprehensive AIDS education programmes for inmates and
staff in prisons countrywide.' However, according to the department, there are no budgets
available and it has recently even appealed to the Department of Health for financial
assistance in appointing a coordinator to start looking at the AIDS issue in South
African prisons.

Proposal to Department of National Health  page 3 ...

HIV Epidemic in Prison
The HIV/AIDS epidemic is now in its second decade. Internationally, correctional
institutions have increasingly utilized rational medical authority in decisions and
policy-making. Fears of warders being infected by prisoners during day-to-day duties were
eroded by the understanding that HIV is a fragile virus that is not easily transmitted.
However, the risk of infection via sexual intercourse is as real in prison as outside and
the manner of reducing this risk is by education and explanation, not denial and

Modes of Transmission
South African prisons are grossly overcrowded, and rife with gangs and violence. Sex is
often a chip that is bargained for by prisoners in returned for favours, or protection by
a particular gang or cell boss. It is therefore likely that the prevalence of HIV in
prisons will be at least equal to that in society generally.

(*The Canadian HIV AIDS Legal Network published their discussion paper on 25 June 1996,
stating that there has been a 40% increase in the number of known cases of HIV/AIDS in
federal correctional institutions over the past 18 months, with the prevalence of HIV
among prisoners being more that 10 times higher than in the general community.)

Since 1994, HIV prevention, care, human rights protection and the political intent to
carry out the National AIDS Plan has been at the forefront of the Department of Health's
AIDS and STD Directorate.  Despite this, in the past three years, the management of HIV
in prisons has been fraught with dispute. Prisoner's grievances include forced
segregation, inadequate medical care, breaches of confidentiality and denial of access to
work and recreation facilities.

Change in Government Policy
In November 1995, a draft policy document was released by the Correctional Services
Transformation Committee, (set up by the Minister and chaired by Carl NIEHAUS), that for
the first time - formally recommended a change in policy. In this context the draft

"All  prisoners with HIV or AIDS are entitled to health care, education, counseling and
preventative measures, equal to those available in the community.

In the implementation of its policy on HIV/AIDS, cooperation between the DCS, the
Department of Health (AIDS & STD Directorate), as well as other organisations engaged in
prevention, care and treatment programmes is advisable."

Need for AIDS Education
While the National AIDS Plan recognises the importance that everyone is educated, it also
recommends that particular groups - including prisoners - be targeted for HIV education.
Education in this context includes the responsibility of informing 'people who are
sexually active ... that condoms are the best available protection, provided that they
are correctly used, ie. with a water-based lubricant.'

Until the recent budget speech (17 May 1996) there was no commitment by the DCS to HIV
and AIDS education. In fact, the 1995/ 96 budget failed to even mention HIV/AIDS as a
priority. This means the DCS staff cannot cope with the challenge of HIV/AIDS education.
Direct NGO and Department of Health intervention and assistance is therefore essential.

It is essential too that the education strategy for prisoners includes all inmates
(including awaiting trial); juveniles, long-term prisoners, women, violent offenders
(including rapists). Prisoners with HIV or AIDS, especially those who have been
segregated, must be provided with education on the progression of the infection and the
measures they can take to stay well.

Proper HIV/AIDS education is vital because many prisoners are young and unaware of the
dangers of transmission. These practices occur consensually as well as through coercive
and violent assault. Education about all safe sex practices will reduce transmission.
Currently more than 200 prisoners die of AIDS-related conditions in the New York prisons
annually. A similar pattern will occur here. A sustained education programme is essential
to destigmatise AIDS and to develop a non-discriminatory environment.

Proposal to Department of National Health  page 4 ...

The Pilot Programme

In 1987, Gary FRIEDMAN, together with Nyanga TSHABALALA initiated and developed a unique
and highly innovative NGO, which created education and awareness around one of the most
sensitive epidemics of modern society, AIDS.

Since its inception, 'Puppets Against AIDS' has grown from a small local initiative to a
highly esteemed international success.  In March 1995, eight years after founding and
running the organisation, Gary FRIEDMAN set up Gary Friedman Productions to continue and
develop the work, together with Nyanga TSHABALALA, as consultant performer/ educators.

An eight-week pilot workshop of 'Puppets in Prison' was held in Johannesburg Prison,
Diepkloof (Medium A), from 12 February to 3 April 1996, where a group of twelve long-term
juvenile prisoners, between the ages of 18 and 24 years, completed the workshop. The
initial pilot programme was funded by the National AIDS and STD Control Program
(Department of National Health).

The participants developed puppet performances, focusing on issues surrounding HIV/ AIDS
in prison. Their scenarios included rape, sexual practises, drugs, prison gangs, human
rights, sodomy, prostitution and the correct use of condoms in the prevention of sexually
transmitted diseases and HIV.

A pilot evaluation was conducted on these performances for targeted prison audiences from
1 to 3 April 1996. Members of both the Correctional Services and Health Portfolio
Committees from Parliament attended the official launch of the programme at Johannesburg
Prison on 3 April.  Chairperson of the Correctional Services Portfolio Committee, Mr Carl
NIEHAUS, assured the group that the success of the pilot programme would be acknowledged
and the programme would be supported by the Department of Correctional Services for
nationwide implementation.

Correctional Services Request
Following the pilot workshop, meetings were held in Pretoria on 26 April 1996, with both
the Department of Correctional Services and the National AIDS and STD Control Programme,
of the Department of National Health.

Chris DU TOIT, head of Prison Social Services and Chris BASSON, Medical Services officer
for Correctional Services stated their total commitment to the continuation and expansion
of the programme nationally. They requested a four-year implementation plan and budget
for the national programme, with the establishment of training/ performing teams in each
of the nine provinces, with two teams operating in Gauteng - (one in Johannesburg and one
in Pretoria). In May 1996, both one and four-year proposals and budgets were submitted to
both the Departments of Health and Correctional Services.

Particular Risk of Prisoners to HIV
It is an established fact that by isolating people in abnormal conditions with little or
no basic human rights, (with particular regard to their sexual practises reflected by
these conditions), proliferates the spread of HIV and other Sexually Transmitted
Diseases.  The majority of prisoners in South Africa are from a lower socio-economic
strata, where there is a significantly higher HIV infection rate than the higher income
levels. Statistics reflect that this is especially true in prisons throughout the world.

Phenomena such as rape, prostitution, sodomy and sexual violence occur and are extremely
difficult practises to control inside prison.  A HIV infected prisoner, subject to these
sexual practises, can rapidly spread the virus to fellow inmates.  In addition to the
human tragedy, long-term prisoners who eventually become ill from the disease, will mean
high medical costs to the Department of Correctional Services.  The recent government
announcement to distribute condoms in prison makes the implementation of education and
awareness programmes on safer sexual practises even more essential and urgent, to
compliment both the distribution of condoms and help halt the rapid increase in sexually
transmitted diseases and HIV.
Proposal to Department of National Health  page 5 ...

Programme Description

Two of the founding members of the highly successful 'Puppets Against AIDS' programme,
form the core staff of the 'Puppets in Prison' programme, which was started in February

The prison target audiences require specialised input from professionals trained in
breaching the enormous communication gap that exists between the prisoners and the
warders/prison officials.

The programme aims to initially employ and train a further two trainer staff and one
administrative person.

In addition to developing the programme, the staff have been engaged in the programme in
prisons, facilitating performances and training workshops daily over the past eight

A thirty-minute documentary video of 'Puppets in Prison', which covers the first eight
weeks of the pilot programme, was produced by Clive Morris Productions and will be
broadcast shortly on television in South Africa, France and the United Kingdom. A
thirteen-minute version of the documentary was broadcast on Carte Blanche (M-Net) on 21
April 1996.

At the programme launch, which followed the pilot workshop, on 3 April 1996, members of
both the Parliamentary Committees on Health and Correctional Services flew up to
Johannesburg to attend the prisoners' performances. The critique of the performances was
extremely positive by the public, journalists and parliamentarians alike.

Their participation in the launch followed widely-endorsed support of the programme made
in Parliament regarding the strategies and policies for AIDS education and prevention in
prisons, made by Gary Friedman Productions in March 1996.

Training Schedule
Four trainer/facilitators will be permanently employed by Gary Friedman Productions to
facilitate the training of two teams of fifteen prisoners, each as
peer-trainer/performers, in two different provinces each year for the next four years.
Thereafter, the programme will be taken over and administered by Correctional Services.

The trainer/facilitators will be employed to do the following work:

1. Initiate contact with the prison authorities to facilitate the administration and
organisation of both the peer-trainers and audiences.

2. Organising the training workshops, which will educate the groups in the following:
performing skills; HIV/AIDS education skills; workshop facilitation skills; constructing
and producing simple scenarios and basic script writing; puppet design and construction;
directing for the puppet theatre; puppetry-in-education; corporal improvisation; theatre
games, as well as team building and negotiation skills.

3. Polishing up the scenarios, directing the performances, with basic choreography.

4. Training the groups in basic HIV/AIDS/STD education to facilitate the creation of
their scenarios and the question/answer sessions which immediately follow each

5. Condom demonstration - negotiating safer sex and the correct use of a condom.

6. Following-up the workshops and monitoring the teams in the field.

7. Evaluation and assessment.

Proposal to Department of National Health  page 6 ...

Aims of THE programme

1. To work with prisoners, a high-risk population not reached by any other intervention,
who deserve particular attention, before being released from prison to spread the
disease, through sexual contact, to the general population.
2. Running peer-group educational workshops, using the medium of puppetry, for the
prisoners to educate their communities about AIDS and STDs, its dangers and related
topics, both inside and outside prison.
3. To discuss the issues surrounding the disease and dispel the myths and false beliefs
that exist in different social surroundings.
4. To help prisoners understand their own risk and to take prevention strategies.
5. To empower prisoners to perform their own educational puppet programmes to their
peers, which contain all the necessary information and effectively make use of this, to
change behaviour patterns and lifestyles.
6. To use the same process and medium to address other important prisoner issues.
7. All the above steps in the implementation of the programme is being carried out in
conjunction with the Department of National Health and the Department of Correctional


1)      To provide informed, entertaining and challenging *supplementary HIV/AIDS
education and knowledge to prison communities, by means of travelling
puppetry-in-education workshops and performances in selected prisons in South Africa, in
association with the Department of National Health and the Department of Correctional

        *Supplementary  in this context acknowledges that we are unable to provide
adequate or comprehensive follow-up or support beyond the workshop and performances, and
thus strive to present the puppet show in conjunction and consultation with the
Department of Correctional Services, health and social workers in each prison community,
which can provide backup.

2)      To, by means of the content of the puppet show, identify and address - in a
non-threatening, non-confrontational way - social attitudes, issues and mores that
contribute to ignorance, oppression and the proliferation of sexually transmitted
diseases and HIV.

3)      To, by means of the content of the workshopped puppet shows and contact with the
facilitators, provide the seeds of empowerment, to individuals and prison communities, to
initiate the process' of self-growth and knowledge around the issues that AIDS affects.

Proposal to Department of National Health  page 7 ...

To this end the following Aims/ Goals apply:

a)      The shows will be performed by the prisoners themselves, in their home languages.

b)      If found necessary, comic information booklets, using characters from their
performances, may be researched, developed and produced in different languages, as
supplementary education and enforcement. This, however, has not been budgeted for due to
the high illiteracy rate in the prisons.

c)      Condoms will be provided free in all prisons, by the performing teams and the
prison health and social personnel.

d)      A practical, visual demonstration of the correct use of a condom will be shown
upon request by the peer performer/educators.

e)      As far as is possible, the senior social/medical staff or persons in the most
direct contact with the prisoners, regarding HIV/ AIDS education and support should be
directly involved in each session.

f)      At the conclusion of each performance a facilitated question and answer session
will be conducted, allowing the audience to ask questions or raise issues that they wish
to discuss in such a forum.

g)      Wherever possible the performances will be arranged in conjunction with related
AIDS organisations in the region, in order to best provide follow-up support and
information for the prison community and to ensure the optimum utilisation of the

Why we use puppets to achieve this?
The puppet is a visual metaphor, representing the 'real life', but at the same time, it
is one step removed from the real world.  It can inform and educate at the same time.
This is achieved by using puppets, which are live and interactive, and combining them
with humour and music, by really entertaining the target audience.

Puppetry holds up a mirror to society and gives people a chance to look objectively at
themselves and especially enables people to laugh at themselves. It is less threatening
than the human performer.

Puppetry brakes down barriers  -  It can be used to break down racial, social, political
barriers and stereotypes, because it represents the 'neutral' aspect of the human,
exaggerating its 'larger than life' issues. The reason for this is the puppet does not
necessary have to belong to any particular culture, race or language group or social
class, as these can be researched and adapted to the target audience. It is an ideal way
to reach a largely illiterate audience.

Puppets can say more than the 'live' actor  - They can get away with being highly
controversial and thus often 'say more' than the live actor could get away with.
Especially when tackling taboo issues like sex and death, the puppet can be less
embarrassing to the audience.  The puppet forms a 'buffer' between the performer and his
audience.  It can deliver the strongest possible message, in a light-hearted manner
without offending or frightening the audience away.

Proposal to Department of National Health  page 8 ...

A Sustained Programme
The pilot workshop in Johannesburg Prison was the first part of what is now a sustained
educational programme, which will see long-term benefits in the on-going exposure of the
prison communities to these programmes. Following each workshop, the trained prisoners
are able to undertake further AIDS education training and even peer-group counselling
courses to supplement their knowledge, which would offer them further expertise in the
field. This also gives them the opportunity to network with outside professionals in the

Our aim is to locate the best performers from each group, who will continue performing
their production to fellow-prisoners. These participants may also undergo further
training workshops, where their selected individual performances would be polished,
before they are taken out to service other prison communities in their region.

Similar workshops are planned in both male and female prisons in each region. A similar
process should be undertaken by the facilitators, with the assistance of a few selected
prisoner participants from the initial group, who would then have the opportunity to
train in the running of such workshops.

Following the pilot performances and national exposure of the programme in the media in
April, requests were received from many prisons throughout South Africa, who would also
like to implement the programme in their prison, but this vastly depends on the funding
made available for the programme!

In line with the principle of 'Universal Precautions', the programme will explicitly
concentrate on including these issues into the subject matter and educational content of
the performances. These issues will also be brought up again by the performer/ educators
during the question/answer period and condom demonstration, which follows each public

Proposal to Department of National Health   page  9 ...


A qualitative pilot evaluation was carried out on the pilot programme by Dr Clive EVIAN,
community health physician and AIDS specialist and Renee BUB, an independent evaluator,
who undertook to co-ordinate the research and evaluation of the project.

The evaluation assessed knowledge and attitudes, myths and beliefs about HIV/AIDS, the
particular risks associated with prison life and the uses of the medium of puppetry as an
educational outreach tool.

The request, based on the recommendations of the pilot programme evaluation, was to
implement the programme in prisons throughout South Africa.

>From the prison authorities' perspective, the programme proved to be very successful. It
served to highlight the AIDS issue which filtered through the prison and created more
inquiry about AIDS amongst prisoners.

The puppeteers developed self confidence and self esteem and an enthusiasm to contribute
and improve their lives. The skills acquired may be used for other programmes and one day
after their release from prison. The prison officials and staff need to be included in
the education programme for it to be successful. The programme was able to raise many
unspoken and taboo issues and served to highlight very important issues and prison
practices which are otherwise "swept under the carpet." The two officials interviewed
were very enthusiastic and supportive of the programme and are hopeful for its wider



----    'Puppets in Prison' is an excellent initiative with numerous benefits for both
the puppeteers involved in the pilot workshops and the audiences exposed to the puppet
shows. This is a very important AIDS initiative, particularly in light of the high risk
nature of the prison environment which is highly conducive to the spread of HIV/AIDS and
other STD's.
----    There is only a limited understanding of AIDS, its means of transmission and
prevention amongst the majority of prisoners. In addition myths and misconceptions about
the disease exist and certain prisoners still doubt the existence of the disease.
----    The target audiences and the puppeteers responded positively to the powerful
medium of puppetry for learning about and discussing highly sensitive issues.
----    Prisoners were supportive of the fact that their peers were used in the AIDS
educational process as the benefits of the workshops would filter through to other
prisoners and not only those who were directly involved in the pilot project.
----    'Puppets in Prison' not only helped to educate prisoners on AIDS and the dangers
the disease posed, but also served an important role in stimulating interest in and
concern about the disease. As a result the programme served as an 'ice-breaker' or
'discussion starter' from where further initiatives and education should continue.
----    As a result of having viewed the puppet show, certain prisoners were encouraged
to try and change their current behaviour patterns so that they would minimise their risk
of contracting HIV.

Proposal to Department of National Health   page 10 ...

----    The attitudes to 'Puppets in Prison' were overall very positive. The medium of
puppets was well received for discussing sensitive issues, the shows were perceived as
relevant to prison life, and new information on AIDS was easily assimilated. After
exposure to the shows, prisoners were more interested in learning about the disease and
learning how to protect themselves.
----    The major criticism of the play related to the content of the role plays. In
particular the fact that the warders were not reflected in the scenes depicted were
severely criticised.

----    The puppeteers were highly enthusiastic and positive about 'Puppets in Prison'.
For many of these prisoners the programme served as a turning point in their lives and
the puppeteers now had long term goals and future visions for themselves. To this end
'Puppets in Prison' clearly serves a corrective and rehabilitative function for the
puppeteers involved.
----    The puppeteers all perceived that they had received adequate AIDS training and
were fully equipped to teach their peers about AIDS related issues.
----    The puppeteers reported changes in their attitudes and behaviour after having
been involved in the eight week pilot programme. Most notably was a change in their
levels of confidence, esteem and sense of self-worth. The puppeteers also felt more
confidence and hopeful about their futures both in and out of prison. The puppeteers were
also less inclined to discriminate against HIV positive prisoners.
----    The puppeteers acquired new skill during the course of the programme. In addition
to learning about puppetry, drama and AIDS, the puppeteers also learnt how to conduct
themselves properly and as a result felt that they could act as role models and advisors
to their peers.
----    While the puppeteers did not necessarily like their puppet characters in terms of
what they portrayed or stood for, they non-the-less form close relationships with their
puppet characters. They were successfully able to use the medium of puppetry to discuss
sensitive subjects without feeling embarrassed or inhibited. The puppeteers were proud of
the fact that they were now able to educate other prisoners about AIDS related risks and
prison realities via the medium of puppetry.
----    Many of the puppeteers perceived a long term role for themselves in the field of
----    The puppeteers perceived that the warders and prison officials were un-supportive
of 'Puppets in Prison'. They also perceived that the warders were jealous of their
success and the levels of attention being focused on them.
----    The puppeteers perceived a change in attitude to themselves by their peers. While
certain prisoners were jealous of their roles in 'Puppets in Prison', the majority now
saw the puppeteers as role models, treated them with increased respect and sought their
advice on AIDS related issues and other problems.
----    During the course of the programme the puppeteers developed a strong sense of
community amongst themselves. They also developed a new sense of self discipline and
pride. After the programme there was a sense of disillusionment and a return to old
(negative) behavioural patterns. Many of the puppeteers reported feeling lost, bored and
under stimulated.
----    The puppeteers developed strong relationships with the project co-ordinators.
They expressed a sense of gratitude to them for all they had taught the prisoners and for
their enthusiasm, hard work and input into the programme. The co-ordinators were regarded
as key to the project and pivotal to its success.
Proposal to Department of National Health   page 11 ...

Prison Authorities
----    The prison authorities perceived 'Puppets in Prison' to be an excellent AIDS
initiative that gave audiences important information about AIDS and also served to
stimulate further interest in and discussion about the disease.
----    The prison authorities expressed a need for more education in the shows and fewer
depiction's of prison life.
----    Certain of the prison staff felt that 'Puppets in Prison' was giving a negative
message to the outside world. Furthermore they were shocked by some of the feedback they
received pertaining to the programme. As a result they were not comfortable with the
----    The prison authorities noted an increase in the confidence and self esteem of the
puppeteers. Other non-involved puppeteers also expressed a desire to be involved in the
----    The benefits of the programme filtered through to other prisoners even if they
had not been directly exposed to the programme or show themselves. There was a noted
increase in discussion about AIDS as well as questions of a more sensitive nature being
asked for the first time.
----    Full scale implementation of the programme is feasible and necessary. The time is
perceived as right for this initiative to be launched on a wider scale.


----    On-going AIDS education is imperative in the prison communities. This is
particularly the case in light of the limited understanding of AIDS amongst prisoners and
the high risk nature of the prison environment.
----    AIDS educational programme must go beyond the basics of transmission and
prevention and also deal with conspiracy theories, myths and misconceptions about the
disease, ethics, issues of confidentiality, lack of belief in AIDS and issues surrounding
discrimination and rejection of HIV positive prisoners. The content of the programme
needs to prioritise these important AIDS related issues.
----    A condom distribution programme in conjunction with education on condom usage
should be implemented in the prison. Condoms should be widely accessible in discrete
places so that prisoners can access them without fear of embarrassment.
----    On going education on means of transmission and prevention of AIDS is required.
This education should stress what types of behaviour do not pose a risk to prisoners such
as casual non-intimate contact with HIV positive prisoners.
----    The puppet programme can be used to address other sensitive and problematic
issues, for example relationships and issues between warders and prisoners from both
perspectives, over and above the issue of AIDS.
----    The continued use of prisoners to educate other prisoners is highly recommended.
'Importing' of professional puppeteers or external organisations to implement the shows
are unlikely to have as much impact as did the use of local prisoner peer educator.

Proposal to Department of National Health   page 12 ...

----    The question and answer section after the play is as important a part of the
educational process as the play itself. Facilitating skills should be developed amongst
the puppeteers to maximise the benefits that audiences receive from this part of the
----    There is a need to workshop the scenes and role plays to be depicted amongst a
wider proportion of the future target audiences. This will help ensure that the scenes
have relevance to and find acceptance amongst the majority of prisoners.


----    The puppetry programme has a clear rehabilitative value and it should be used to
help prisoners to reintegrate back into civilian life.
----    In order to increase the levels of support for 'Puppets in Prison', it is
necessary to incorporate all levels of prison society, including the warders, into the
----    It is necessary for 'Puppets in Prison' to be an on-going initiative particularly
for the puppeteers. A sudden withdrawal from the prison result in the puppeteers feeling
lost and disillusioned and results in them returning to old behaviour patterns.

Prison Authorities

----    The programme should incorporate and target female prisoners as well as male
----    There is a need for more AIDS education for the puppeteers so they can answer
questions posed by their peers with greater authority and confidence.
----    Further condom education should provided via the medium of puppetry prior to the
wide-scale distribution of condoms in the prisons.
----    The 'Puppets in Prison' programme must include the prison staff and officials in
order to ensure their support for and understanding of the project.
----    AIDS programmes for prisoners should be parallelled with programme for prison

* Please refer to the pilot evaluation attached!
Proposal to Department of National Health  page 13 ...

The  Budget

The 'Puppets in Prison' programme will be financially managed and audited by Douglas and
Velcich Chartered Accountants (SA) through their trust fund account.

The initial eight-week pilot programme was funded by the National AIDS and STD Control
Program of the Department of National Health. Following the positive response of pilot
programme, both one- and four-year budget applications were thereafter made to the
Departments of Health and Correctional Services, both Nationally and in Gauteng. The
National AIDS and STD Control Programme seemed also positive, although no answer seems
forthcoming until October 1996. Correctional Services had the same response.

Further applications have been made to the Swedish Embassy, Christian Aid (UK), the
International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), USAID, the Standard Bank Foundation,
IDT and Liberty Life Foundation. In the interim period, two teams have been requested for
training in Gauteng. Part of the urgency lies in the sudden policy of the government to
make condoms available for immediate distribution in the prisons. To enable this to
happen, an education programme must be put in place to run simultaneously!

The idea is to make use of the trained prisoners, together with the workshop
facilitators, in the training of new teams. The two teams, one based in Johannesburg and
the other in Pretoria, will then be able to tour and perform their educational programs
to prisons in northern and southern Gauteng. This is prior to the programme being
implemented nationally. It was proposed by the Department of Correctional Services that
ten such training/performing teams should be trained nationally to be set up in all nine
provinces, over a four-and-a-half year period!

For further information, contact Gary Friedman
Gary Friedman Productions
PO Box 1125, Bondi Junction,
NSW 1355,   Australia
Tel:   +61-2-9389.5087
Mobile: +61-401-038.985
SMS Mobile: +61-405-192.221
E: gary@africanpuppet.com

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